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The discussion section should relate your study findings to those of other studies, particularly if questions raised by previous studies served as the motivation for your study, the findings of other studies support your findings [which strengthens the importance of your study results], and/or they point out how your study differs from other similar studies. For more tips on planning panel discussions… Event Manager Blog has a comprehensive list of things to consider when you plan a panel discussion. When writing the discussion section, you should carefully consider all possible explanations for the study results, rather than just those that fit your hypothesis or prior assumptions and biases. The Organization. However, do not offer recommendations which could have been easily addressed within the study. Be certain that you clearly identify your comments as speculation or as a suggestion for where further research is needed. First proposed by author Stephen Toulmin in The Uses of Argument(1958), the Toulmin Method emphasizes building a thorough support structure for each of an argument's key claims. Obviously, you must refer to your results when discussing them, but focus on the, Azar, Beth. In other words, you make your main argument. Use the present verb tense, especially for established facts; however, refer to specific works and references in the past tense. II. Note any unanswered questions or issues your study did not address, and.... Analyzing vs. Summarizing. ... discussion discussion section active learning writing collaborative learning motivation conceptual knowledge analysis problem solving reading & composition courses participation group work reading strategies visual learning critical thinking role play and simulation Full tag list. Otherwise, follow the general order you reported the findings in the results section. IV. If a limitation is applicable to the method chosen to gather information, then describe in detail the problems you encountered and why. Once you have identified a meeting place … No study in the social sciences is so novel or possesses such a restricted focus that it has absolutely no relation to previously published research. Interpretation is a subjective exercise. Some instructors prefer that chairs be in a circle, others in a U-shape, while for small group discussions or debates chairs must be moved and assembled differently. IV. Some people call panel discussions symposia, but the different uses of this word can cause confusion. It is important to remember that the purpose of research is to. If appropriate, refer the reader to a figure or table to help enhance the interpretation of the data. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results. Department of Biology. Panel discussions are an inseparable part of many events. Minimize the number of teams that require a person's participation. The discussion section should relate your results to those found in other studies, particularly if questions raised from prior studies served as the motivation for your research. "The Anatomy of an Article: The Discussion Section: "How Does the Article I Read Today Change What I Will Recommend to my Patients Tomorrow?” The Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery 74 (June 2013): 1599-1602; Research Limitations & Future Research. III. By bringing together several speakers, event organisers are able to offer the audience a thought-provoking discussion that analyses a topic from different angles. Combine standard flatware trays and bigger sizes for cooking tools to create a perfect fit. Organizing is about creating a system that works and training your family to maintain it. A good moderator actively directs the discussion and doesn’t just sit back and let panelists drone … This can be followed by any recommendations for further research. Think of your discussion as an inverted pyramid. You should make suggestions for further research in the discussion section. Invite the right people. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon, 2009. The Writing Center. Organize the discussion from the general to the specific, linking your findings to the literature, then to theory, then to practice [if appropriate]. If a limitation is applicable to the method chosen to gather information, then describe in detail the problems you encountered and why. "Biases in the Interpretation and Use of Research Results." You don’t want to force the reader to go through the paper multiple times to figure out what it all means. Make Suggestions for Further Research. Respiratory Care 49 (October 2004); Kretchmer, Paul. Briefly reiterate for your readers the research problem or problems you are investigating and the methods you used to investigate them, then move quickly to describe the major findings of the study. Note any unanswered questions or issues your study did not address and describe the generalizability of your results to other situations. to formulate a deeper, more profound understanding of the research problem you are studying. This demonstrates to the reader you have inadequately examined and interpreted the data. Using the bin is an effective way to keep discussion focused and it helps people hold onto their thoughts and ideas without being disruptive to the meeting. Higher Achievement is a four-year high school preparatory after-school program for disadvantaged urban children of various academic levels during middle school, 5th-8th grade. Use the same key terms, narrative style, and verb tense [present] that you used when describing the research problem in your introduction. Fourteen Steps to Writing to Writing an Effective Discussion Section. MacCoun, Robert J. Describe the patterns, principles, and relationships shown by each major findings and place them in proper perspective. Set a schedule such as checking for new discussion postings only once a day. Organizing is the function of management which follows planning. The sequencing of providing this information is important; first state the answer, then the relevant results, then cite the work of others. If appropriate, the discussion section is also where you state how the findings from your study revealed new gaps in the literature that had not been previously exposed or adequately described. Note that any significant or unanticipated finding is often because there was no prior research to indicate the finding could occur. Azar, Beth. You should write a direct, declarative, and succinct proclamation of the study results, usually in one paragraph. Although your study may offer important insights about the research problem, this is where you can address other questions related to the problem that remain unanswered or highlight previously hidden questions that were revealed as a result of conducting your research. Try using expandable organizers in larger drawers to give everything a place. This can be followed by any recommendations for further research. Use the same key terms, mode of narration, and verb tense [present] that you used when when describing the research problem in … Systematically explain the meaning of the findings and why you believe they are important. Obviously, you must refer to your results when discussing them, but focus on the interpretion of those results, not just the data itself. The order of interpreting each major finding should be in the same order as they were described in your results section. Note any unanswered questions or issues your study did not address, and.... These are the general rules you should adopt when composing your discussion of the results: The content of the discussion section of your paper most often includes: Keep the following sequential points in mind as you organize and write the discussion section of your paper: The objectives of your discussion section should include the following: Analyzing vs. Summarizing. This is not necessary. MacCoun, Robert J. You don’t want to force the reader to go through the paper multiple times to figure out what it all means. Begin by briefly re-stating the research problem you were investigating and answer all of the research questions underpinning the problem that you posed in the introduction. Explain the Meaning of the Findings and Why They are Important. Bates College; Hess, Dean R. How to Write an Effective Discussion. After reading the discussion section, you want the reader to think critically about the results [“why didn't I think of that?”]. Organizing involves assigning tasks, grouping tasks into departments, delegating authority, and allocating resources across the organization. Analyzing vs. Summarizing. The Writing Center. For corporate and organizational discussion groups, the list of participants … You may choose to conclude the discussion section by making suggestions for further research [this can be done in the overall conclusion of your paper]. Describe the generalizability of your results to other situations, if applicable to the method chosen, then describe in detail problems you encountered in the method(s) you used to gather information. A conclusion is not merely a summary of the main topics covered or a re-statement of your research problem, but a synthesis of key points and, if applicable, where you recommend new areas for future research. ", One of the most common mistakes that you can make when discussing the results of your study is to present a superficial interpretation of the findings that more or less re-states the results section of your paper. Interview-based research is organized by topics, whereas screen-based research is … If applicable, begin this part of the section by repeating what you consider to be your most significant or unanticipated finding first, then systematically review each finding. The discussion section should relate your study findings to those of other studies, particularly if questions raised by previous studies served as the motivation for your study, the findings of other studies support your findings [which strengthens the importance of your study results], and/or they point out how your study differs from other similar studies. Think of your discussion as an inverted pyramid. Once a plan has been created, a manager can begin to organize. After reading the discussion section, you want the reader to think about the results [“why hadn’t I thought of that?”]. Explain the Meaning of the Findings and Why They are Important. Check the course home … Reiterate the Research Problem/State the Major Findings, Explain the Meaning of the Findings and Why They are Important. [By the way, another similarity between organizing my garage and organizing writing is the need for some motivation. University College Writing Centre. The discussion will always connect to the introduction by way of the research questions or hypotheses you posed and the literature you reviewed, but the discussion does not simply repeat or rearrange the first parts of your paper; the discussion clearly explain how your study advanced the reader's understanding of the research problem from where you left them at the end of your review of prior research. This division of work is helping in bringing specialization in various activities of concern. If needed, use subheadings to help organize your presentation or to group your interpretations into themes. University of Toronto; Summary: Using it Wisely. The main trick to imposing organization is to know some options and to choose one. This paragraph should begin with a description of the unexpected finding, followed by a brief interpretation as to why you believe it appeared and, if necessary, its possible significance in relation to the overall study. Provide food and drink. If more than one unexpected finding emerged during the study, describe each of them in the order they appeared as you gathered or analyzed the data. Reiterate the Research Problem/State the Major Findings. Engage the reader in thinking critically about issues based upon an evidence-based interpretation of findings; it is not governed strictly by objective reporting of information. Sometimes these tangents relate to the topic at hand. Writing in Psychology course syllabus. The article starts by outlining the main goals and writing approaches. NOTE: Besides the literature review section, the preponderance of references to sources is usually found in the discussion section. One of the most common mistakes that you can make when discussing the results of your study is to present a superficial interpretation of the findings that more or less re-states the results section of your paper. If a study that you cited disagrees with your findings, don't ignore it--clearly explain why the study's findings differ from yours. This is important because comparing and contrasting the findings of other studies helps to support the overall importance of your results and it highlights how and in what ways your study differs from other research about the topic. Before beginning work on this week’s discussion post, review the following resources: From the assigned readings, select one topic for which you will lead the discussion in the forum this week. Comment on their relative importance in relation to your overall interpretation of the results and, if necessary, note how they may affect the validity of the findings. As noted, the exception to discussing findings in the same order you described them in the results section would be to begin by highlighting the implications of a particularly unexpected or significant finding that emerged from the study, followed by a discussion of the remaining findings. The sound of water from the mill stream rushing by put everyone at ease, and encouraged creative thought. George Mason University; Discussion. Check out this article to learn a bit more about what a symposium is. Follow this step-by-step guide. VI. This is important because comparing and contrasting the findings of other studies helps to support the overall importance of your results and it highlights how and in what ways your study differs from other research about the topic. George Mason University; Discussion. Obviously, you must refer to your results when discussing them, but focus on the, https://library.sacredheart.edu/c.php?g=29803, Fourteen Steps to Writing to Writing an Effective Discussion Section. The Structure, Format, Content, and Style of a Journal-Style Scientific Paper. With this in mind, be careful that you do not read more into the findings than can be supported by the evidence you have gathered. Annesley Thomas M. “The Discussion Section: Your Closing Argument.”, Avoid the use of jargon or undefined technical language, Follow a logical stream of thought; in general, interpret and discuss the significance of your findings in the same sequence you described them in your results section [a notable exception is to begin by highlighting an unexpected result or finding in order to grab the reader's attention], Use the present verb tense, especially for established facts; however, refer to specific works or prior studies in the past tense, If needed, use subheadings to help organize your discussion or to categorize your interpretations into themes. American Psychological Association gradPSYCH Magazine (January 2006). University of North Carolina; Schafer, Mickey S. Writing the Discussion. Community organizing, method of engaging and empowering people with the purpose of increasing the influence of groups historically underrepresented in policies and decision making that affect their lives.. Community organizing is both a tactic to address specific problems and issues and a longer-term engagement and empowerment strategy. Department of English Writing Guide. It is far better for you to identify and acknowledge your study’s limitations than to have them pointed out by your professor! Explain the Meaning of the Findings and Why They are Important. For a good structure and organization of your research’s discussion and conclusion, keep in mind these aspects: 1. George Mason University; One of the most common mistakes that you can make when discussing the results of your study is to present a superficial interpretation of the findings that more or less re-states the results section of your paper. If appropriate, refer the reader to a figure or table to help enhance the interpretation of the data [either within the text or as an appendix]. The discussion assignment provides a forum for debating topics that may not have one clear answer. Best practice: Create teams with a larger set of members and more channels. Department of English Writing Guide. The Structure, Format, Content, and Style of a Journal-Style Scientific Paper. Use the same terms, academic writing style that was used throughout your research paper 3. This part of the discussion should begin with a description of the unanticipated finding, followed by a brief interpretation as to why you believe it appeared and, if necessary, its possible significance in relation to the overall study. If a study that you cited does not support your findings, don't ignore it--clearly explain why your research findings differ from theirs. 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